Tuesday, 8 January 2013

Influence of Muslim Scientists on European Science



Contributing to the growth of European science was the major search by European scholars for new learning which they could only find among Muslims, especially in Islamic Spain and Sicily. These scholars translated new scientific and philosophical texts from Arabic into Latin.

One of the most productive translators in Spain was Gerard of Cremona, who translated 87 books from Arabic to Latin, including Mohammad ibn Musa-al Khwarizmi's on Algebra and Almucabala, Jabir ibn Aflah's Elementa Astonomica, al-kindi's on Optics, Ahmed ibn Mohammad ibn kathir al- Farghani's On Elements of Astronomy on the Celestial Motions, al-Farabi's on the Classification of the Sciences, the chemical and medical works of Razi, the works of Thabit ibn Qurra and Hunayn ibn Ishaq, and the works of Arzachel, jabir ibn Aflah, the Banu Musa, Abu Kamil Shuja ibn Aslam, Abu Al-Qasim, and ibn al Haytham ( including the Books of Optics).

Other Arabic works translated into Latin during the 12th Century include the works of Mohammad ibn Jabir-al- Harrani, Al-Battani and Mohammad ibn Musa al Khwarizmi ( including The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing), the works of Abu al-Qasim ( including the al-Tasrif), Mohammad al-Fazari's Great Sindhind ( based on the surya siddhanta and the works of Brahmagupta), the workds of Razi and Avicenna ( including The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine), the works of Averroes, the works of Thabit ibn Qurra, al-Farabi, Ahmed ibn Mohammad ibn Kathir al- Farghani, Hunayn ibn Ishaq, and his nephew Hubaysh ibn al-Hasan, the works of al-Kindi, Abraham bar Hiyya's Liber embadorum, ibn Sarabi's ( Serapion Junior) De Simplicibus, the works of Qusta ibn Luqa, the works of Maslamah ibn Ahmed al-Majriti, Jafar ibn Mohammad Abu Mashar al-Balkhi, and al-Ghazali,the works of Nur-Ed- Din Al Betrugi, including on the Motions of Heavens, Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi's medical encyclopedia , The Complete Book of the Medical Art, Abu Mashar's Introduction to Astology, the works of Maimonids, ibn Zezia ( Byngezia), Masawaiyh, Serapion, al-Qifti, and Albethar.

Abu Kamil Shuja ibn Aslam's Algebra, the chemical works of Geber, and the De Proprietatibus Elementorum, an Arabic work on Geology written by a Pseudo-Aristotle. By the beginning of the 13th Century, Mark of Toledo Translated the Quran and various medicals works.

Fibonacci presented the first complete European account of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system from Arabic sources in his Liber Abaci (1202), Al-Khazini's Zij as- Sanjari was translated into Greek by Gregory Choniades in the 13th century and was studied in the Byzantine Empire. The astronomical corrections to the Ptolemaic model made by al-Battani and Averroes and the Ptolemaic models produced by Mo-ayyeduddin Urdi ( Urdi lemma ), Nasir al-Din al-Tusi ( Tusi-couple) and ibn al-shatir were later adapted into the Copernican heliocentric model. Al-Kindi's ( Alkindus) law of terrestrial gravity influenced Robert Hooke's law of celestial gravity, which in turn inspired Newton's law of universal gravitation. Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni's Tarikh al Hind and Kitab al-qanun al-Masudi were translated into Latin as Indica and Canon Masudicus respectively, ibn al-Nafis' Commentary on Compound Drugs was translated into Latin by Andrea Alpago ( d. 1522), who may have also translated ibn al-Nafis' Commentary on Anatomy in teh Canon of Avicenna, which first described pulmonary circulation and coronary circulation, and which may have had an influence on Michael Servetus, Realdo COlombo and William Harvey.

Translations of the algebriac and geometrical works of ibn al-Haytham, Omar Khayyam and Nasir al-Din al Tusi were later influential in the development of non-Euclidean geometry in Europe from the 17th century. ibn Tufail's Hayy ibn yaqghan was became " one of the most important books that heralded the scientific Revolution". ibn al-Baitar's Kitab al-jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada also had an influence on the European Botany after it was translated into Latin in 1758.

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