Monday, 31 December 2012

Nutritional Notes

Nutrition- The Science of food and how the body uses it n health and disease.

Essential nutrients- Substances the body must get from foods because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs.  These nutrients include proteins, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water.

Digestion- the process of breaking down food in the gastrointestinal tract into compounds the body can absorb.

Kilocarlorie- a measure of energy content in food; 1 kilocalorie represents the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 c; commonly referred to as calorie (1 kilcarlorie contains 100 calories)

Protein – an essential nutrient; a compound made of Amino acids that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.  Protein form important parts of the body’s main structural component muscles & bones. Proteins also form important parts of blood. Enzymes, some hormes, and cell membranes: complete and incomplete proteins- individual protein source are considered complete if they supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts and incomplete if they don’t. Meat fish poultry eggs milk cheese and other food from animal sources provide complete proteins.  Incomplete proteins which come from plant sources such are legumes and nuts, are good sources of most essential amino acids, but are usually low in one or two.

The body can produce amino acids- the building blocks of protein amino acids

Legumes- vegetables such as peas and beans that are high in fiber and are also important sources of protein

Saturated fat- fat with no carbon- carbon double bonds solid @ room temperature.

Monounsaturated fat- fat containing two or more carbon- carbon double bonds liquid @ room temperature.

Hydrogenation- process by which hydrogen’s are added to unsaturated fats, increasing the degree of saturation and turning liquid oils into solid fats. Hydrogenation produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids and standard and transforms of unsaturated fatty acids.

Trans  fatty acid- a type of unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenation; trans fats have an typical shape that effects their chemical activity.

Cholesterol- waxy substance found in the blood and cells and implicated in heart disease.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) –blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues; excess amounts result in the accumulation of deposits on artery walls.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL)- bloods fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries thereby is protecting against heart disease.

Omega- 3 fatty acids- polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish oils that are beneficial to cardiovascular health; the end most double bond occurs three carbons from the end of the fatty acid chain.

Carbohydrate- essential nutrient; sugars starches and dietary fiber are all carbohydrates.

Whole grain- the entire edible portion of a grain such as wheat, rice, or oats, including the germ,endosperm,. And bran

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